Westwind Jet
Study Guide
     The Westwind flies kind of like a Chevy Suburban with bad ball joints.  It does, however, provide good range,  compfort, reasonable speed, and better than average runway performance.  I don't have a problem with 3,000 foot runways if the weight is right, nor do I hesitate to cross the Pacific with the benefit of the AUX tank.  At normal cruise, you can go 5 hours and have about a one hour reserve at the end.  You can fly them without the Yaw Damper, but if you do, especially in the Westind II, you and your passengers will feel like praying to the porcelain Buddha before very long.
 
Limitations

 Weights / WW 2

Max Ramp Taxi  Weight
23,650 lbs
Max Takeoff Weight
23,500 lbs 
Max Landing Weight
19,000 lbs 
Max Zero Fuel Weight 
16,500 lbs 

Weights / WW 1

Max Ramp Taxi  Weight
23,000 lbs
Max Takeoff Weight
22,850 lbs 
Max Landing Weight
19,000 lbs 
Max Zero Fuel Weight 
16,500 lbs 

Speeds

Vmo / Mmo WW1
      Auto Pilot Disengaged
360 kts / 0.765 Mach
             / 0.710 Mach
Vmo / Mmo WW2
365 kts / 0.800 Mach
Vfe      12 Deg 
            20 Deg 
            40 Deg
250 kts 
250 kts 
180 kts
Vle / Vlo 
Alternate Extension
180 kts 
140 kts
Vsb 
Vmo / Mmo
Max Tire Groundspeed
174 kts
V
20,700
19,000
17,500
15,000
 13,500 
230 kts
217 kts
204 kts
182 kts
170 kts
DV Window Open
250 kts

Operational Limits

Max Alt T.O. & LDG
 10,000 ft 
Max Enroute Altitude
45,000 ft
Max  Alt. Flaps Extended
20,000 ft
Min Temp T.O. & LDG
-40 Deg C 
Max Temperature 
Min  Temperature
ISA + 35 C 
-54 C
Max Tailwind T.O/ LDG
 10 kts
Max Runway Slope
2% 
Max Fuel Imbalance 
Enroute 
Takeoff / Landing
800 lbs
300 lbs
Load Factor Limit 
    Flaps Up 
    Flaps Extended 
+ 2.8 / -1.0 G
+ 2.0 /- 0.0 G
Avgas / Max Altitude
18,000 MSL
Max Alt / AP & YD Inop
Flaps 20 or More
10,000 MSL

Vmc & Crosswind

CROSSWIND (DEMONSTRATED)
                WESTWIND 2
                WESTWIND 1
23 KTS
20 KTS
VMCG (WESTWIND 2)
                FLAPS 0 AND 12
                FLAPS 20
93 KTS
90 KTS
VMCG (WESTWIND 1)
                FLAPS 12 AND 20
88 KTS
VMCA (WESTWIND 2)
                FLAPS 0 AND 12
                FLAPS 20
106 KTS
104 KTS
 VMCA (WESTWIND 1)
                FLAPS 12 AND 20
104 KTS

Engine Limitations
Garrett TFE 731-3B

N1
N2
ITT Deg C
Time
Starting
---
---
 907 C
 917 C
Abv 927 C 
No Limit 
10 Sec 
 Hot Section
Takeoff 
100.0%
101.0%
907 C
5 Minutes 
Max Continuous
100.0%
100.0%
885 C
30 Minutes
Max Overspeed
101.5% to 103.0%
103.0% to 105.0%
103.0% to 105.0% 
105.0%
------------
  1 minute
  5 Seconds

START TIMES

10% N2 TO LIGHT-OFF
10 SEC MAX
LIGHT-OFF TO IDLE
50 SEC MAX
AIRSTART - FUEL FLOW TO 60% N2
25 SEC MAX

 Engine Oil System Limitations

Max Oil Temp  to 30,000 ft 
                  above 30,000 ft 
Transient ( 2 Min )
127 C 
140 C 
149 C
Max Oil Temp to open cap
  30 C
Min Oil Temp for Start
-40 C
Max oil consumption / 25 Hours 
1 Quart 
STARTING / Lightoff --> Oil Press
10 Sec
IDLE
24 - 46 PSI
TAKEOFF, CLIMB CRUISE
38 - 46 PSI
TRANSIENT
55 PSI / 3 MIN

Systems


Flight Controls

     The ailerons and elevator and rudder on the Westwind are manually actuated by the pilots.  The aircraft does have an autopilot.  The ailerons and elevator may be moved by the autopilot servos, and the rudder is equipped with a yaw damper.
 The flight controls on the Westwind Jet are operated by push / pull tubes and cables.  They are manually actuated by the pilot.  They are servo controlled only when the auto pilot is in use.  The yaw damper system augments the displacement of the rudder, but may be easily overpowered by the pilot.  The trim systems, flaps, yaw damper and autopilot are electric.

Ailerons

 The ailerons are located on the aft outboard section of each wing.   Aileron trim is provided by a DC electric motor that moves a tab located on the aileron itself.  On the Westwind, as with most airplanes equipped with a tiller for nosewheel steering, the co-pilot holds the aileron & elevator controls on the takeoff until the rudder is effective enough for directional control on the ground.  This usually occurs between 80 and 100 knots.  When this speed has been reached, the co-pilot calls it out, and the captain responds, "I have the yoke".

Elevator

 The Westwind is equipped with an elevator for pitch control, and a moveable horizontal stabilizer for pitch trim.  The elevator is moved manually by the pilot via push / pull tubes and cables.  When a pitch trim adjustment is desired, the horizontal stabilizer is moved by one of two electric trim motors in the pitch trim system.  The main pitch trim motor is activated by switches on the pilot and co-pilot  control yokes.  If for any reason the main pitch trim does not function, or runs without input from the crew, it may be disengaged by pressing the button on the inside right portion of the captains control yoke.  This not only turns off the main pitch trim, it makes the alternate trim system available as well.  This is indicated by the illumination of a red light on the center pedestal.  The toggle switch adjacent to the light now controls the pitch trim.
     To test the pitch trim system, run the normal trim from each pilots yoke.  When the  trim is running, depress the pitch trim cutout switch on the captains control wheel.  This should terminate any movement of the trim system.  Now check the alternate pitch trim by moving the alternate pitch trim switch.  Press the red lighted button that is next to the alternate pitch trim switch.  This will restore normal pitch trim operation.  Verify that the main pitch trim operates again, and set it to the takeoff position.  NEVER test any alternate or emergency trim system to the limit of its travel.  Alternate trim systems usually don't have electrical limit switches.  The system may jam, cost lots of money to fix, and the owner will be quite pissed off and you may not be invited to fly that plane again.

Rudder

 The rudder is actuated by tubes and cables via the rudder pedals on the cockpit floor.  The pedals are adjustable forward and aft with a hand crank  on the lower forward panel in front of each pilot.  The yaw damper may be turned on after takeoff to enhance the yaw stability of the aircraft.  The yaw damper provides the most noticeable improvement in the ride when flying in rough air.

Flaps

 The flaps on the Westwind are operated by a 1.55 horsepower electric drive motor.  The motor is powered by the battery bus.  The control circuit is on the # 1 DC Distribution Bus.  Flaps may be positioned UP, 12 deg, 20 deg at 250 Kts, and 40 deg at 180 Kts.  The drive motor turns flex cables that operate jackscrews, thus extending or retracting the flaps.  A flap asymmetry protection system compares the left and right flap positions.  When a difference of 6.5 to 10 degrees exists, the flaps will stop moving.  They are to be left in that position until repaired by maintenance.
     The flap asymmetry protection system may be checked by placing the flap unbalance switch to the left or right position while the flaps are in motion.  The flaps should stop until the switch is released, then continue to the selected position.  If the flap asymmetry system activates during flap operation, return the flap selector to the last setting and land with whatever flap setting you have.  Add 15 knots to Vref for flaps up, 10 knots for flaps 10, and 5 knots for flaps 20 degrees.

Speedbrakes

 The speedbrakes consist of single vented panels located on the top of each wing.  They have the vents in them to minimize buffeting.  The speedbrakes are hydraulically actuated and electrically controlled.  There are no flight manual restrictions as to their use.  They are deployed via a switch in the cockpit.   Speedbrakes on the Westwind are fully extended, or retracted.  They deploy when selected, and whenever the lift dump system is used.

Lift Dump

     The lift dump system consists of large inboard spoilers on the upper surface of the wing roots, and the speedbrakes.  In order for the lift dump system to deploy, both main gear squat switches must indicate that the aircraft is on the ground, both throttles must be at idle, and lift dump must be selected via the lift dump switch.  Like the speedbrakes, the lift dump system is hydraulically actuated and electrically controlled.  Do not attempt to operate or even arm the lift dump system in flight.  Worst case, it will cause a crash, and in any case, the other pilot may want do demonstrate the proper use of the crash ax on your head.

Landing Gear

 The landing gear is hydraulically actuated and mechanically controlled.  The only electrical items related to the gear are the gear indication, warning, squat switch functions, and anti-skid.  With loss of electrical power, the gear may be extended normally, but will not retract because of the down lock solenoid.  If you are unfortunate enough to have a hydraulic failure, the gear may free fall to the extended position if the fluid trapped in the uplocks leaks out.  Prior to a long over water flight, some operators check the uplocks by jacking the airplane, retracting the gear, bleeding off the hydraulic pressure, and letting the aircraft sit for two or three hours to see if the uplocks hold.  Israeli Aircraft makes fine airplanes, however, there are a few things that indicate some level of brain damage in one or more members of their design team.  This is one of them.  The range and speed of the airplane is somewhat more limited with the gear down.

Brakes

 The normal braking system requires main system hydraulic pressure.  If electrical power is lost, brakes will work, however,  the anti-skid system will be inop, as it requires electrical power.
     The emergency braking system uses an electric hydraulic pump to actuate the aft pads pucks only.  If the main hydraulic system fails, the emergency brake system will stop the airplane.  The emergency brakes need not be selected.  When the main hydraulic system loses pressure, the brake pedals will feel soft and will deflect to a much greater angle.  Depressing the brake pedals to this increased angle activates the emergency brakes.  The emergency hydraulic pump is activated whenever the gear is not on the uplocks.  A pressure switch turns the pump on and off to regulate the pressure from 750 to 1100 psi.  Emergency brakes are not available without electric power.

Thrust Reverse

 The thrust reversers are electrically controlled and hydraulically actuated.  They will not function without electrical power.  They are actuated by the main hydraulic system, or in the event that it fails, their own accumulator.  If main hydraulic pressure is lost, and the hydraulic low pressure light on the thrust reverser panel is not illuminated, the accumulator is charged and you should get at least one cycle of thrust reverse.  The reversers are locked in the stowed position by a locking pin.  When reverse is selected, the locking pin is retracted by the "BAS".  BAS stands for Big Ass Solenoid.  The BAS is overriding a very powerful spring, and gets real hot real quick.  This is why reverse thrust is limited to 1 minute at a time.  It does not take more than that to stop the airplane with reverse alone.
 
 

Fuel System

Fuel Tanks

 The fuel system on the Westwind Jet is fairly simple.  Fuel is stored in the fuselage, wings, and wing tip tanks.  Fuel is pumped from the left and right fuselage tanks to their respective engines.  The fuselage tanks are connected by two interconnect manifolds and valves.  The valves are DC operated via a single rotating switch in the center of the lower overhead panel.  When the valves are open, fuel may flow freely between the left and right fuselage tanks.  There is no way to pump fuel from one side to the other.  Gravity is the only help here.

 The fuselage tanks are gravity fed from the wing tanks.  The pilot has no control of this, as there are no valves between the wings and fuselage.  The wing tanks are replenished by the tip tanks.  First half of the tip tank fuel gravity feeds into the wings.  The remaining fuel is pumped from the tips to the wings via jet pumps.  This fuel transfer may be selected by the crew, or set to "Auto".  In any case, if the transfer has not occurred by the time 6600 Lbs of fuel remain, place the switch in transfer, and verify that the transfer is taking place.  Landing with fuel in the tips is prohibited.

FUEL CAPACITY

WESTWIND 2

TANK
US GAL
LBS
FUSELAGE
505.0
3,384
LEFT WING
294.5
1,973
RIGHT WING
294.5
1,973
LEFT TIP
115.0
  770
RIGHT TIP
115.0
  770
AUXILIARY
100.0
  670
TOTAL
1,424.0
9,540

WESTWIND 1

TANK
US GAL
LBS
FUSELAGE
 505.0
3,384
LEFT WING
 282.5
1,893
RIGHT WING
 282.5
1,893
LEFT TIP
115.0
   770
RIGHT TIP
115.0
   770
TOTAL
1,300.0
8,710
AUX OPTIONAL
100.0
   670
TOTAL
1,400.0
9,380

Fuel Pumps

 The Westwind Jet has two electric boost pumps in each fuselage tank, a controllable jet pump in each tip tank, and a jet pump in the lower forward section of each fuselage tank.  Each engine is equipped with a high pressure engine driven fuel pump.  If this puppy does not work, find a hotel because you're stuck!

Main Fuel Pumps

 The main fuel pumps are 28 Volt DC Electric.  The left main pump is powered by the #2 or Right Main DC Bus, and the right main pump is powered by the #1 or Left Main DC Bus.  They should be operated from just prior to engine start, until the engine has spooled down to below 10% N2 RPM on shutdown.  If the fuel pressure drops to below 7 PSI, indicating failure of the main fuel boost pump, the alternate boost pump will come on.  The alternate and main pumps are powered from different electrical busses, so loss of one bus will not disable both boost pumps on the same side.

 Alternate pumps must be on before selecting main pumps.  Selecting main pumps first will result in the alternate pump turning on when the main is selected.  The only way to get a main pump on line without the alternate pump operating first is to pull the "Alternate Boost Pump" circuit breaker.  The pressure switch is then disabled because it is on the same circuit breaker as the alternate pump itself.

Alternate Fuel Pumps

 The alternate fuel pumps are also 28 Volt DC Electric. The left alternate pump is powered by the #1 or Left Main DC Bus, and the right alternate pump is powered by the #2 or Right Main DC Bus.  They are selected just prior to engine start.  The alternate boost pumps must be on prior to selecting the main pumps, as the 7 PSI fuel pressure switches will turn on the "Alternate" if the main pumps are selected first.  When the main pumps are turned on when no pressure exists in the fuel system, the pressure switches turn on the alternate pump prior to the main pumps having enough time to build up the fuel pressure.

Jet Pumps

 The jet pumps get their power from the boost pumps.  The jet pumps in the fuselage tank are for the purpose of keeping the electric fuel pumps supplied with fuel during nose down attitudes when the fuel level is low.  These pumps are on whenever the boost pumps are operating.  The jet pumps in the tip tanks perform two functions.  They transfer fuel form the wing tips into the wings.  They are also used to dump fuel if necessary.

Normal Operation

 Prior to engine start, the fuel pump switches are set to "Main".  This will cause the alternate pumps to come on, as indicated by their amber annunciator lights.  "Alternate" is then selected.  After the engines are started, the boost pumps are then selected to "Main".  The switch must be moved quickly from alternate to main through the off position, or the 7 PSI pressure switch will put you right back into alternate.  If this happens, you may say a bad word.

 The "Fuel Transfer Switch" controls the transfer of the tip tank fuel into the wings.  It should be placed to Open, Closed, then to "Auto".  This verifies the operation of the jet pump valves in the fuel transfer system.  This should cause the fuel to transfer from the tips to the wings at the proper time.  If the fuel transfer has not begun by the time the fuel quantity is down to 6600 Lbs, the pilot should place the transfer switch to the open position.  Once the transfer is complete, the switch should be placed in the "Close" position.

Fuel Additive

 There are no required fuel additives for the Westwind.  The inside of the fuel system is coated with a substance called Bunna N.  It is non nutrient and does not allow the fungus to grow upon it.  The fuel icing issue is resolved through the use of fuel heaters.  There operation is entirely automatic.  It is not required, but nonetheless a good idea to add Prist once every third or fourth fueling to keep the water from accumulating in the fuel.
Refueling

 There are two ways to refuel the Westwind.  Single point refueling is the preferred method.  If this is not available, the aircraft may be fueled through two fuel caps located on the top of the fuselage.  Manual refueling valves are located between the wings and the wing tip tanks.  These valves are opened by pulling down on the metal rods protruding from under the wing, where it is joined to the tip.    When the valves are open, fuel may flow from the wing into the tip.  When the valve is closed (UP) the fuel may flow only from the tip to the wing.  These valves must always be closed prior to flight, otherwise a serious fuel imbalance may result.  Maximum pressure for single point refueling is 55 PSI.

Fuel Dump

 When it is necessary to dump fuel, verify that a fuel pump is operating on each side, then depress the fuel dump switches on the overhead panel.  This will open the fuel dump valves in the bottom of the tip tanks.  It also activates the tip tank jet pumps to boost the fuel dump.  After the tip tanks are empty, the motive flow fuel that was powering the jet pump is pumped overboard through the fuel dump valve.  If both the main and alternate pump on one side are inop, open the interconnect valve to prevent a fuel imbalance.  If no other pilot action is taken and the system works properly, the dump should terminate at 950 pounds per side, or about 1900 lbs total.
     If you are going to dump a bunch of fuel, do not do it in a holding pattern, as you may fly back through the fuel vapor.  This can cause you engines to do strange things, from overtemp to a flameout.  Notify ATC so another airplane does not fly through your vaporized fuel.
 

Hydraulic System

 The Westwind Jet is equipped with a single hydraulic system.  Skydrol is the type of fluid used.  Two engine driven hydraulic pumps power the system.  An electric hydraulic pump is available for emergency braking, and to set the parking brake.  The pressure gauge for the emergency system is direct reading, thus requires no electrical power.  If you can remember only one thing about this airplane, PARKING BRAKE DOES NOT HOLD IF ANTI-SKID SYSTEM IS ON!  If you don't remember this, the airplane will remind you by running into something!

Hydraulic Systems

Main 
Emergency 
Nosewheel Steering 
Emergency Brakes
Landing Gear 
 Parking Brake 
Normal Braking
Speedbrakes 
Thrust Reversers 

     The main system can operate on one engine driven hydraulic pump.  If for any reason, the main system is inop, you have the following ways to deal with this tragedy:
 

System
Alternate Procedure
Nosewheel Steering
Differential Brakes
Landing Gear 
Blow Down Bottle 
Normal Brakes
Emergency Brakes 
(No Anti-Skid)
Speedbrakes 
 Inop - Plan Ahead 
Thrust Reversers 
Accumulator 

     If the hydraulic pump on a failed engine is still good, a windmilling engine will provide some hydraulic pressure.  Motoring of a failed engine may provide some hydraulic pressure for normal braking.  If you have a main hydraulic system failure, don't be a hero.  Stop the airplane, exit the runway only if it is safe to do so, and call for a tow.

Normal Operation

     Do not forget to bleed the thrust reverser accumulator pressure prior to checking the fluid quantity.  If you fail to bleed the accumulator, you will over fill the system, and get a reminder that skydrol is an effective paint remover.  If you are going to add fluid, bleed off the reservoir head pressure so you don't get a face full of hydraulic fluid when you remove the cap.  If you donut think this is important, look at what happened to Michael Jackson!

 Turn the battery switch on, let the emergency hydraulic pump pressurize its system, and set the parking brake.  During the first engine start, rest your feet on the brake pedals and feel the main hydraulic system pressure come up.  Another way to determine that the hydraulic system pressure is up is to watch the thrust reverser low pressure annunciator light.  It will go out when the main system charges the thrust reverser accumulator.  Check the hydraulic pressure gauge.   It will indicate properly only when an inverter is on, because it is AC Powered.  The pressure gauge for the emergency hydraulic system is direct reading, and requires no electrical power unless it is dark and you need a flashlight.  A match may work in an emergency.  Use the fire extinguisher located in the cockpit if things get out of hand.

Nosewheel Steering

 The nose wheel steering is controlled with a wheel type tiller located on the left side panel of the cockpit.  It will work any time there is hydraulic pressure in the main system and the nose gear is down.  You will find it fairly touchy to operate.  Go easy at high speeds.  On the preflight, you did hook up the nose steering, didn't you?  If not, the nose wheel may not come down when requested, or it may come down with the wheels facing other than straight ahead.  In this case, you have a real problem.  If there is any doubt, get out and check it before you inadvertently sign up for a potentially wild and dangerous ride, and an interesting interlude with the Feds after your release from the local emergency room!
     During the takeoff roll, start using the rudder early.  Use the nose steering to fulfill any steering needs that the rudder won't handle.  Doing this will really smooth out the ride.    Ride through one takeoff in the back of the airplane if you can.  This will show you that the people in the back don't get the sensation of radical movement that you experience in the cockpit when the steering is in use.   When you reach between 80 and 90 knots, the rudder should be sufficient.  If this is so, the Captain places his (her if female, their if multiple personality or Siamese twins) left hand on the control yoke.  At V1, the right hand leaves the thrust levers and finds a new home on the yoke as well.  Do not play with the tiller in flight.
     On the landing roll, the copilot takes the yoke at 80 to 90 knots.  Roll corrections that were in place are maintained or adjusted as appropriate.  The Captain then rests his hand on the tiller, and steers with the rudder until the rudder is no longer effective.  Then the tiller is used for the remainder of the landing roll and taxi.

Brakes

     The brakes on the Westwind are hydraulic.  Normal brakes use pressure from the main hydraulic system.  This pressure is used to operate forward and aft calipers for each wheel.  Brake pressure is modulated with the brake pedals.  Anti skid protection is provided by an electrical anti skid system.  This system is good, but does not like to share the stage with the parking brake.  If the parking brake is set, and the anti skid is on, or is turned on, the brakes get very unhappy and give up.  Yes, the anti skid thinks the wheels are locked, because they are, and releases brake pressure.  This can be a real pain in the ass if you forget at the wrong time.

Landing Gear

     The landing gear is hydraulic.  What a surprise!  It is powered by the main hydraulic system.  The normal extension and retraction of the gear is not dependent upon electrical power, as in many aircraft.  The gear handle on the Westwind actually moves a hydraulic valve that operates the gear.  Indication and anti-skid protection is all that is lost if an electrical failure occurs after the gear is retracted.  If you have an electrical failure prior to retracting the gear, the ground safety solenoid will not let you move the gear handle out of the down position.  It does take electrical power to override this.  The most likely use for the override would be the failure of a squat switch followed by an engine failure after V1, but prior to gear retraction, as leaving the gear down would result in a substantial loss of climb performance.
     Alternate extension of the gear is done by placing the gear handle in the down position, unlatching the emergency gear handle and rotating it 90 degrees aft, and pulling it up to discharge the nitrogen into the down side of the forward main landing gear actuators.  The nose wheel is extended by a bunge.
     If the main hydraulic system is not providing pressure to the brakes, the brake pedals can be depressed farther by the pilot's feet.  This activates the emergency braking system.  The emergency brake system takes fluid from a standpipe in the main hydraulic system reservoir.  An electric hydraulic pump supplies brake pressure to the aft brake calipers only.  There is no anti skid protection when using the emergency brake system.   The emergency brake system is what you use to set the parking brake prior to starting engines, as you most likely will not have main system hydraulic pressure until one of your engines is started.

Speedbrakes

     The speedbrakes and lift dump system are hydraulically powered and electrically controlled.  The speed brakes have no restrictions on their use.  They may be extended with the speedbrake switch whenever you have electrical and hydraulic power available.  The lift dump system consists of the speedbrakes and another panel on the inboard section of each wing.  The lift dump system is allowed only on the ground during landing roll. In order to operate, both main gear squat switches must be compressed, both thrust levers must be at idle, and the lift dump switch must be placed in the lift dump position.  The lift dump system deploys the speedbrakes and the inboard lift dump panels.

Thrust Reverse

     The thrust reversers are hydraulically actuated and electrically controlled.  The must be armed with switches beneath the thrust levers, and will then deploy when the reverse levers are moved upward and back by the pilot.  Limit the use of reverse thrust to one minute.  This is because a large solenoid must retract the thrust reverser locking pins.  This solenoid draws lots of power and will overheat if used for more than one minute at a time.  You are limited to idle power in thrust reverse below 70 knots.  The thrust reversers require main system hydraulic pressure, and electrical to operate.  They have their own accumulator that will deploy them once after the failure of the main hydraulic system.

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM LIMITATIONS

MAX PRESSURE
2,200 PSI 
MIN PRESSURE
1,400 PSI 
MAX EMERGENCY PRESSURE
1,300 PSI 
MIN EMERGENCY PRESSURE
  750 PSI

 
Electrical System

 
Westwind Electrical System

     The electrical system on the Westwind Jet consists of two batteries, two generators, and a system of electrical busses.  Engine starting may be performed using the aircraft batteries, or an external power unit.
    The starter generators on the Westwind are powered by 28 Volt DC when an external power unit is used.  During a battery start, the batteries are connected in series, providing 48 Volt DC for engine start. When using an external power source, start one engine only, disconnect the external source, and start the other engine with the aircraft batteries.  During the second engine start, the operating generator powers some of the aircraft's busses, but does not assist, or "cross generator start" the other engine.  The second engine is started with the batteries in series, the same as the first.  It does not matter which engine you start first.  The right engine is the norm, as the entry door is on the left side.
     The left and right main DC Busses are located in the fuselage aft of the passenger compartment.   Three feeder lines connect each main bus to its respective distribution bus in the cockpit.  These feeder lines have circuit breakers on each end.  A remote 50 amp CB is located adjacent to the main DC Bus, and a 35 amp CB is in the cockpit.  A distribution bus tie breaker is can connect the left and right distribution busses if all three feeder lines are disabled on one side.  This "Distribution Bus Tie" is normally pulled.  It is "set", or pushed in only in the event one of the main busses is not powering it's respective distribution bus.

     The main busses power fuel boost pumps, inverters, windshield, and baggage heat.  The distribution busses power most of the other items on the aircraft.  The flap motor is powered by the battery bus, and flap control is on the #1 DC distribution bus.

 The loss of one main bus will not result in the loss of both fuel boost pumps on one side.  The loss of one generator will cause the load shedding of the baggage heat, the respective windshield heat, and the loss of some other minor items.  The windshield heat may be reactivated by placing the battery switch to the "Override Load Reduct" position.  This works ONLY if both batteries are connected.  This would normally be the case unless one of the batteries overheated and was disconnected by the crew.

 The generator control units on the Westwind incorporate a feature that is common to many other aircraft.  The voltage is regulated to 27 Volts DC for the first 2 minutes after the first engine is started.  This is to reduce the likelihood of a battery overheat, as it reduces the initial charging rate.  After two minutes, the voltage returns to 28.5 Volts, which can be confirmed by the increase in voltage, and the rise in amps on the generator load meter.
 

Voltage 28.5  Volt
Generators 300 Amps 
Batteries  24 Volt / 23 Amp Hour 
Ice Protection

     The Westwind is certified for flight into known or forecast icing conditions.  The engines are anti iced by bleed air.  The bleed air heats the nacelle lip and stators.  If the engines are equipped with the old "Bullet Nose" spinners, they are also heated with bleed air.  The P2/T2 probe is heated electrically.  The conical spinners do not require heat due to their shape.  Turn on the ignition prior to turning on engine anti ice, and leave it on until after the engine anti ice is turned off.  Do no operate the engine anti ice on the ground for more than 10 sec if the ambient temperature is more than 40 deg F.
    The pitot / static system is electrically heated.  On the older airplanes you have an ON / OFF switch, and on the newer ones, a switch with OVERIDE, AUTO, and OFF.  Override is "ON", "AUTO" is on whenever the nosewheel strut is extended, and "OFF" is off.
    The windshields are heated electrically.  The High and Low settings are merely different temperature settings for the thermostats that control the windshield temperature.  With loss of one generator, the respective windshield heat will be load shed, along with the baggage heat.  As long as both batteries are online, windshield heat may be restored by placing the battery switch to the "Override Load Reduct" position.
    The forward baggage compartment is electrically heated, unless the extended range fuel tank is installed.  It is controlled with a switch in the cockpit.  The switch has three positions, OFF, ON and Test.  When you turn the baggage heat ON, the heating elements come on only if the temperature is cold enough to require heat.  If you do not see a rise in amps on the generator when turning on the baggage heat, select "TEST", and you will see an increase in amps, indicating operation of the heating elements.  The "TEST" position overrides the thermostat and powers the heating elements regardless of the temperature.
    The wings and tail of the Westwind are equipped with De-Ice boots.  When a quarter to a half an inch of ice has formed, cycle the boots and remove it.  Do not cycle the boots during takeoff and landing, or when performing intentional stalls.  Also, if you want to cycle the boots once in a while to check them, do it when the wing and tail are nice and warm as it is easier on the boots that way.
 

ENVIRONMENTAL

     The Westwind is heated, cooled, and pressurized by engine bleed air.  Bleed air is extracted from both engines.   LP and HP bleed air is supplied to the "Bleed Switching Valve" or BSV.  The BSV modulates or mixes the low and high pressure air in order to provide between 18.5 and 27 PSI bleed air to the environmental system.

     The air travels through the "ACM" or air cycle machine.  This consists of a heat exchanger, a compressor, another heat exchanger, an expansion turbine. A temperature control valve may be opened or closed to regulate the amount of air that goes through the ACM, and the amount that goes around it.  Since the bleed air is hot, and it was not cooled by going through the air cycle machine, the cabin temp will increase.  If for some reason the normal mode of heating & air-conditioning is not available, emergency bleed air may be provided for pressurization from the right engine's LP compressor section.  This air will be hot; kind of like riding in a black station wagon in the Arizona desert in the summer.  It won't kill you but it ainít much fun.

     The cabin temperature control valve is positioned electrically.   Both manual, and automatic temp control require electrical power.  Manual allows the "Cold / Hot" switch to move the valve to the desired position.  "Auto" on a Westwind positions the temperature control valve in accordance with instructions from a thermostat.  The auto system works about as well as Jane Fonda as a goodwill ambassador to the VFW.  I suggest you use manual temp control.

    The Westwind is equipped with an oxygen system.  The oxygen valve must be turned on and the system checked prior to flight.  If the system pressure reaches zero, it must be inspected, cleaned, and serviced by an appropriate repair facility.

GROUND PRESSURIZATION CONTROL
 The "Ground Pressure Control switch causes the outflow valves to migrate slowly to the closed position to smooth out the pressure spike that results when the bleed air switch is placed from "Ram" to "Normal" after liftoff.  You may elect to takeoff with the bleed air on if you are not performance limited.  Bleed air on has the same effect on the aircraft's performance as an additional 300 Lbs of weight.  If you make a bleeds off takeoff, and turn the bleeds on right after liftoff, the transition usually not a problem.



   Pay attention to this light if it illuminates other than during the test of the annunciator pannel.  This malfunction can hurt you if you don't deal with it properly.
 
BLEED AIR LEAK

 The Westwind has two bleed air leak lights.  One for the left, and one for the right.  These lights tell you that hot bleed air is going somewhere that it does not belong.  The first step to deal with this light is to select  "Emergency" with the bleed air selector switch.  This closes both bleed switching valves, and opens the emergency pressurization valve, supplying hot bleed air from the right LP compressor section to pressurize the cabin.  To regulate the temperature, adjust the throttle as flight conditions permit.

 If the bleed air leak light goes out, this tells you that you can control the problem with the valves.  The checklist will guide you through the process of selecting left an right bleed sources to isolate the problem and possibly restore normal air conditioning with one bleed source.

     If the bleed air leak light does not go out, you may have a leak that can't be controlled with the valves.  This could mean that the leak is between the engine and the bleed switching valve, or that the bleed air valve will not close.  In this case, you must retard the thrust levers one at a time, and possibly shut down one of the engines.  This could be a real bugger if you are somewhere between the west coast and the Hawaiian Islands.

 If it is necessary to operate the pressurization system in the emergency mode, you may get an "Emergency Air Temp Hi" light.  If this occurs, retard the right thrust lever to the extent necessary to extinguish the light.

AIR CONDITIONING SMOKE

 If you should happen to experience air conditioning smoke, you should first don your oxygen mask and smoke goggles, then, if necessary, raise the cabin altitude to the extent necessary for visibility.  Deploy the passenger oxygen masks if necessary.  Now you may attempt to isolate the source of the smoke as follows:

1)   Bleed air switch to left engine:
      Smoke stops, Leave in Left Engine.
      Smoke continues, Perform step  # 2

2)  Bleed air switch to right engine:
      Smoke stops, Leave in right Engine.
      Smoke continues, Perform step  # 3

3)  Bleed air switch to Emergency:
     Smoke stops, Leave in Emergency and Land.
     Smoke continues, Depressurize cabin.  When
     cabin differential = 0, bleed air switch to "Ram".

 The engines and the ACM are the most likely sources of air conditioning smoke, as they contain oil.  The above mentioned procedure should prevent any additional smoke from entering the cabin.
 

Flight Profiles

    Here are some basic flight profiles that I have used over the years.  They are not the only way to fly the airplane, but have worked for me since I started giving training and checkrides in biz jets  little over 20 years ago.  In the event of a difference between this and the Aircraft Flight Manual, the flight manual is the document to follow.

Steep Turns

1.  Enter at 250 KTS indicated AIRSPEED.
2.  Bank aircraft 45 deg.  As you pass 30 deg of bank, pitch up 2 deg.  Add power to maintain AIRSPEED.
3.  Lead roll out by 15 deg.  Passing 30 deg bank, pitch down 2 deg  to maintain  altitude.
4.  Maintain 250 KTS and assigned heading.

Stall - Cruise Configuration

1.    Compute Vref & set AIRSPEED bugs.
2.    Maintain assigned altitude and set power to Idle.
3.    Trim for level flight until passing 150 KTS.  Maintain altitude with necessary back pressure.
4.    At first indication of a stall,  throttles to " MAX POWER "
5.    Call " MAX  POWER Flaps 12 deg.
6     Reduce pitch ONLY to the extent necessary to eliminate symptoms of the stall.
7.    Reestablish assigned altitude.
8.    At Vref + 15 KTS, call " Flaps Up, After Takeoff Checklist.  "
9.    Maintain AIRSPEED and altitude as directed.

Stall - Takeoff Configuration

1.  Compute Vref, set AIRSPEED bugs & select flaps 20.
2.  Maintain assigned altitude and set power to 50% N1.
3.  Trim for level flight until passing 150 KTS.
4.  Establish 25 deg bank angle and maintain altitude with necessary back pressure.
5.  At first indication of a stall, advance throttles & call " MAX POWER ".
6.  Level wings and reduce pitch ONLY to the extent necessary to eliminate symptoms of the stall.
7.  Reestablish assigned altitude.
8.  At Vref + 15 KTS, call " Flaps 12 deg, then Up, After Takeoff Checklist.  "
9.  Maintain AIRSPEED and altitude as directed.

Stall - Landing Configuration

1.    Slow to flap speed, set 60% N1 & Set bug to Vref.
2.    Maintain assigned heading & altitude.
3.    Below 250 KTS, " Flaps 12 deg".
4.    Below 225 KTS, " Flaps 20 deg".
5.    Below 180 KTS, " Gear Down Landing Check ".
6.    Below 180 KTS, " Full flaps. " trim to Vref. Establish a 400-700 feet/min sink rate at Vref.
7.    Level off at designated altitude  W I T H O U T increase in power
8.    Maintain altitude until  first indication of a stall.
9.    Apply MAX power lower nose only as much as required to eliminate the stall.
       At Vref minus 10 KTS   M I N I M U M  speed, call for " Flaps 20 deg", and increase the
       pitch attitude to 10 deg nose up at about 1 deg / sec.
10.  When VSI & Altimeter indicate positive rate of climb call " Positive rate, Gear Up ".
11.  Establish 7.5 deg nose up attitude.
12.  At Vref + 20 KTS, Call " Flaps 12 deg, then Up, After Takeoff Checklist ".
13.  Return to entry heading and altitude or as directed.

ILS Approach - Two Engines

1.    Intercept LOC at 140-160 KTS and Flaps 20 deg.
2.    One dot prior to intercepting Glide Slope, call " Gear Down Landing Check ".
3.    When ON the glidepath, call " Full Flaps ".
4.    Establish Vref to Vref + 5 KTS & track LOC & GS until Minimums.

ILS Approach - One Engine

 1.  Intercept LOC at 140-160 KTS and Flaps 12 deg.
 2.  One dot prior to intercepting Glide Slope, call " Gear Down Landing Check ".
 3.  When ON the glidepath, call "Flaps 20 deg".
 4.  Establish Vref + 15 KTS & track LOC & GS
 5.  At 100-150 Ft AGL, Full flaps, power idle & land.

Non Precision Approach - One or Two Engines

1.    Intercept Final Approach Course at 140 KTS and Flaps 20 deg.
2.    Crossing Final Approach Fix, call " Gear Down Landing Check ".
3.    Descend to and maintain MDA until Field in Sight or MAP is initiated. ( As Appropriate ).
4.    If Landing is to be made, call " Full Flaps " when intercepting a glidepath appropriate for a
       normal landing.  For one engine INOP, Vref + 15 KTS until 100 feet AGL, then " Full
       Flaps" so as to descend thru 50 ft AGL at Vref as in a normal landing.

No Flap Approach

1.  Vref + 25 KTS until established on Final Approach.
2.  Vref + 15 KTS on final.
3.  Approach angle NORMAL.  A flat approach will usually result in a longer landing roll.

Go Around or Missed Approach

1.  "Max Power", Rotate to 10 deg nose up, " Flaps 20 deg".
2.  Positive Rate of Climb, " Gear Up ", Vref + 15, " Flaps up, After Takeoff Checklist ".
3.  Climb at 200 KTS.
4.  Engine Failure or Fire Checklist if Appropriate.

Takeoff

1.  Set V2 on Capt. Airspeed & V1 on Co-Pilots Airspeed.
2.  At 80 kts, left hand moves from tiller to Yoke.
3.  At V1, right hand moves from throttles to Yoke.
4.  Vr, Rotate to 15 deg ( 2 eng ) 12 deg ( 1 eng ).
5.  Climb at 15 deg pitch, ( 2 eng ) or V 2 ( 1 eng ).
6.  At 400 ft & V2+30 KTS, "Flaps Up After T.O. Check ".
7.  Engine Failure or Fire Checklist if Appropriate.
8.  Climb  200 KTS to 3000 AGL then 250 Kts.

Rejected Takeoff

1.  Proceed as in normal takeoff until malfunction dictates that the takeoff be rejected.
2.  Capt. calls "Abort" (Co-Pilot may call Abort if Capt elects to delegate that authority).
3.  Thrust levers to idle
4.  Speedbrakes extend.
5.  Wheel brakes as necessary.
6.  Thrust Reverse deploy.
7.  If another takeoff is contemplated consider brake energy & appropriate turnaround time.

Emergency Descent

 1.    Oxygen masks on within 5 sec of cabin pressure loss.
 2.    Check passenger oxygen masks deployed.
 3.     Select Oxygen mask microphone.
 4.    Ignition ON.
 5.    Thrust levers to idle.
 6.    Spoilers Extend.
 7.    Auto Pilot OFF.
 8.    Initiate 45 deg bank if desired.
 9.    Vmo/Mmo minus 10 kts to 14,000 or MEA as required.
10.  Clean up & proceed to nearest suitable airport if appropriate.



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