Falcon 2000

 
 

Study Guide

    The Falcon 2000 is one of the nicest corporate airplanes I have flown, and I have flown all but a very few.  The runway and climb performance is great.  It burns very little fuel for an aircraft of it's size, about half what a G2 burns.  It is quiet, compfortable, and a pleasure to fly.  Be careful what you say in the cockpit.  Unlike most other airplanes, the passengers sometimes hear conversations eminating from the cockpit.  If this is a problem, close the door.

General

Altitude T. O. & Land
10,000 Ft
Runway Slope
2%
Max Tailwind
10 Knots
Runway
Paved Hard Surface
Max Cruise Altitude
47,000 Ft
Load Factor
+ 2.64 to - 1.0 G  Clean
+2.00 to - 0.0 G    Flaps Extended
Cabin Pressure
+9.3 / -0.3 PSI
Wing Span
63 ft  4 in
Length
66 ft  3 in
Height
22 ft  9 in
Tire Pressure
197.1 PSI  Mains 161.0 PSI  Nose
(No weight on wheels)
190.0 PSI  Mains 155.0 PSI  Nose
Laseref IIIMax Latitude Align 
78.25 Deg 

Speeds

Vmo / Sea Level
 350 Kts 
Vmo / 10,000 Ft
 370 Kts
Mmo / to FL 390
0.862 M 
Mmo /FL 420 & Above
0.85 M
Va  (Maneuvering)
198 Kts
Vmca / Vmcl
  90 Kts
Vmcg
  98 Kts
Vturb
280 Kts  0.76 Mach
Vlo / Mlo
190 Kts 0.70 Mach
Vle / Mle
245 Kts 0.75 Mach
Vfe 10 Deg
200 Kts
20 Deg
160 Kts
40 Deg
160 Kts
Windshield Wipers / Max
215 Kts
Cockpit Window
215 Kts
Max Tire Ground Speed 
195 Kts

Note:  The above mentioned flap limits for flaps 20 to 40 Deg are more or less political limits.  The UK folk did not like the pitch changes when the flaps were extended at the former limits of 190 Kts for 20 Deg and 180 kts for  40 Deg of flaps.  These were the former limitations for US registered aircraft.  In an emergency, extension of the flaps at these speeds even though contrary to a limitation, will not damage the airplane but may piss off the Europeans..

Weights

Max Takeoff 
36,500 Lbs
16,329 Kg
Max Landing
33,000 Lbs
14,968 Kg
Max Zero Fuel Weight
28,660 Lbs
13,000 Kg
Max Payload
5,990 Lbs
2,717 Kg
Max Baggage Comp
1,600 Lbs
   725 Kg
Baggage Loading 
61.4 Lb./sq in
300 KG / sq meter
Baggage Shelves
150 Lbs Each
67.8 Kg
Basic Operating Weight
21,800 Lbs
9,864 Kg
Note:  For you pureists out there, yes, I know that the Kilogram is a unit of mass, not weight, so if you really want the weight in metric, multiply the Kg's by 9.8 to get the weight in Neutons!

Center of Gravity Forward 14% Mac up to 33,000 Lbs
  15.5% Mac @ 36,500 Lbs
 Aft 32.5% Mac to 28,660 Lbs
  26.5 % Mac @ 36,500 Lbs
Mean Aerodynamic Cord Lemac = 372.01 Temac = 485.70
Datum 25% Mac
CG % Mac = ((Moment / Weight) - 372.01) / 113.69


CFE-738
5918 Lbs Thrust

 
Temp / Time
N1
N2
Takeoff 
864 C / 2 Min
851 C / 5 Min
96.7% 
106.0%
 Takeoff   APR 
890 C / 2 Min
877 C / 5 Min
Max Continuous 
861 C
96.7%
104.9%
Start Limits
Ground Air
815 C
APU or Crossbleed
864 C
Windmill      /  10 Sec
890 C
                   /   2 Sec
1000 C 
Ground / Start to Lightoff 15 Sec
Lightoff to Idle 60 Sec
Airstart / Starter
90 Sec
Airstart / Windmill
180 Sec
Max Starter Engagement
53.6%
Max Restart
150 C (FADEC)
 
Note:   100% N1 =  9,725 RPM
            100% N2 = 26,415 RPM

Engine Oil Mobil Jet II, Mobil 254, Aeroshell / Raco 560

Oil Pressure 100 PSI    3 Min
Max Continuous
85 PSI
Min  Normal
60 PSI
Min  Idle
30 PSI
Cold Start
135 PSI
Below  0 C  2.5 Min
Oil Temp
138 to 155 C   3 Min
138 C  Max
Min Takeoff & Flight
30 C
-40 C   Cold Start

APU GTCP 36-150      (Garrett)

Max Start Temp
974 C
Max Continuous
746 C
Max N1
110%
Normal N1
102%
APU Generator
350 Amps   1 Minute
 
300 Amps     Ground to  10,000 Ft
 
250 Amps     10,000  to  25,000 Ft
 
200 Amps     25,000  to  35,000 Ft

 
 
Fire Protection

 The Falcon 2000 has fire warning only for the wheel wells, and baggage compartment. The engines and APU have fire detection, and extinguishing systems.

Wheel Well



 The wheel well fire detection system consists of bi-metallic strips that close a circuit, thus illuminating the wheel well fire warning light.  A hot brake or a ruptured wing anti-ice bleed air line are the most likely causes for this warning.
Slow to 190 knots and extend the landing gear.  Turn the wing anti-ice off if the gear extension does not extinguish the warning light.

Baggage Compartment



 The baggage compartment fire warning is actually a smoke detector.  Smoke causes a light beam to reflect and illuminate a sensor that activates the warning.  One pilot must then don a smoke hood, go through the lavatory, close the lavatory door, open the baggage door and fight the fire.

Engines / APU



 The engines and APU have the same type of fire detection system.  The APU has itís own fire bottle that only it may use.  The engines have two fire bottles.  One or both bottles may be discharged to extinguish a fire in either engine.
 This system consists of a metal fire detection loop.  This loop is pressurized with helium, and also contains a titanium wire.  If a large area of the loop is heated, this causes the helium to expand and increases the pressure inside the loop.  A pressure switch senses the increased pressure, and activates the alarm.  If a small area of the loop is heated to a very high temperature, the titanium wire, when heated, emits hydrogen.  The hydrogen being added causes an increase in pressure  in the loop, activating the alarm.  When the loop cools, the helium contracts, and the hydrogen is absorbed by the titanium wire.  This will cause the fire light to go out.  Due to the system design, a false fire warning in highly unlikely.
 A fault light is installed for each fire loop.  If the fault light is illuminated, this means the loop has depressurized, and is therefore unable to detect a fire.  If a fault light is illuminated on the ground, donít fly.  If it comes on in flight, execute the fire procedure.
 
Fuel System

    The fuel system on this airplane is simple.  There is a left and a right fuel tank.  One electric boost pump in each tank delivers fuel under pressure to the respective engine driven fuel pump.  A cross boost pump valve, (X-BP), when opened, will allow you to feed an engine from the opposite fuel tank.  Tank to tank fuel transfer is possible by placing the cross tank switch, (X-TK), toward the fuel tank you wish to receive the fuel.
  To transfer fuel from the left tank to the right tank: Open the cross boost pump valve, move the cross tank switch from the center to the right, and turn off the right fuel boost pump.  When the desired amount of fuel is transferred, turn the right boost pump back on, place the cross tank switch to the center position, and close the cross boost pump valve.
    If you cruise at Mach 0.80, your range is about 3,000 NM with no wind.  If you slow to 0.75 Mach, you can go a bit farther, like Anchorage Alaska to Agusta Georgia!  I once filled the fuel tanks in Manzanillo Mexico, flew 2 hours to El Paso, 2 hours to Sheridan Wyoming, an hour to Denver (APA) and back to Sheridan.  All on that one fill up!  That was 6 hours of flying with 4 landings.  These flights were at normal cruise, 470 Knots TAS.  If you want to go slow and cheap, It will do 430 Knots at FL 470, and burn 1,200 per hour total!

Capacity 12,155 Lbs 1,814 Gal
Max Imbalance   2,200 Lbs    330 Gal
1,600 Lbs Each Additional Hour @ Max Cruise
 Range @ Max Cruise 6.4 Hrs / 2800 Miles

Prist Authorized but not Required
Jet A -40 C Freeze -37 C Min Temp
Jet A 1 -47 C Freeze -44 C Min Temp

Jet B / JP-4  (N/A) -60 C Freeze -57 C Min Temp
           Not currently authorized due to possible flameout
 above FL 230 with fuel boost pump inop.
Fuel Burn 2,300 Lbs First Hour
 
 
Electrical

 The electrical system on the Falcon 2000 is simple, and quite well designed.  A single Nicad battery is used to start the APU, and to provide emergency electric power should all generators fail.  The aircraft has 2 engine driven "generators", that are actually alternators connected to transformer - rectifiers to make DC to operate the aircraftís electrical systems.   The end result is that they produce up to 400 amps of DC power each, and are lighter, more efficient, and more reliable than the classic old 55 Chevy type generators on many light jets.  They may not, however, be used as a starter, as some generators are on other aircraft.   Any device installed on a Falcon 2000 that requires AC power takes the DC supplied by the aircraft and makes itís own AC power.  From a pilotís perspective, we have only a DC electrical system.  The term "No Brainer" applies here.

APU



 The APU generator, on the other hand is your basic DC starter / generator of the olden days.  It is used to start the APU, then provides DC power on the ground, or in flight at or below 35,000 feet.  The APU may be started on the ground or in flight, but may not be operated during takeoff.

APU Generator

Ground to  10,000 Ft 300 Amps
10,000  to  25,000 Ft 250 Amps
25,000  to  35,000 Ft  200 Amps
1 Minute Transient  Load 350 Amps

Battery



    A 24 volt, 36 AH Ni-cad mounted battery is mounted on the DC power rack in the forward service compartment.  A fan runs automatically on ground if EXT PWR switch-light is extinguished.  Battery charging occurs through the ESS BUS.  The BAT switch is tripped for reverse-current after a 3 second time delay if the current is greater than 280 amps.  This protects the battery from being charged to rapidly.  This can bite you in the ass if you just start the APU, throw the generator on line and walk away without making sure the battery charging current is low enough not to trip off the charging.  If you don't check, the battery discharges and the APU shuts down after a while.  The battery, being discharged, will not even operate it's own relay to get online and be recharged by the APU if you start the APU with external power.  The battery must be removed and serviced.  That is fun if you are in Podunk Kansas where nobody has the right stuff to service your battery.  Battery temperature warning is provided by gauges and warning lights:  Amber light (warm) at or above 120 F, and Red light (HOT) at or above 160 F.

Electrical Busses



 Electrical distribution is simple.  The left generator is connected to the "Left Bus".  The battery, and the APU generator are connected to the "Essential Bus", and the right generator is connected to the "Right Bus".  The "Left Bus-Tie" relay connects the "Left Bus" to the "Essential Bus".  This relay is usually closed, so that the left generator powers the left, and essential busses.  The left bus tie relay has some automatic functions that we will discuss later.  The "Right Bus-Tie Relay" is between the "Essential Bus" and the "Right Bus".  This relay is kept in the "Flight Normal" (open) position, but may be closed to allow the right generator to power the essential bus, or even the left bus provided that the left bus tie relay is also closed.  The right bus tie relay will close automatically when external power is available and selected.
 The left bus powers the A1, A2, A3, and A4 busses.  The right bus powers the B1, B2, B3, and B4 busses.  The A and B busses are connected to their respective left or right busses through current limiters.  This is to provide fault protection.  For example, a short on the A3 bus would cause the current limiter connecting it to the left bus to melt, thus isolating the A3 bus, but leaving the remainder of the system intact.
 Normal electrical load will probably be around 170 amps for the left generator, and 100 amps for the right.  This may vary a bit from one airplane to another.  What this tells us is that one generator can power the whole airplane without any reduction in normal electrical load.  If you are down to the APU generator only, some load reduction may be required if you are above 10,000 feet, as the APU generatorís output is reduced above that altitude.
 
Generator Voltage
29.5 Volts
Max Generator Load / Flight
400 amps
Max Generator Load / Ground
300 amps
Transient Loads  160 Sec
500 amps
Transient Loads    40 Sec
600 amps
Transient Loads      5 Sec
800 amps

 
Hydraulics

     The hydraulics on the Falcon 2000 consists of two independent sub systems.  Normal system pressure is between 2900 and 3000 psi.  The primary flight controls are powered by either or both of the systems.  Both systems are serviced with 5606 hydraulic fluid.  System fluid quantity may be determined by reference to a quantity gauge on the lower gauge screen, or by a sight gauge on the reservoir itself.  Both systems are pressurized by bleed air to prevent foaming and reduce the possibility of cavitation.

Fluid may be added to either system by the following procedure:

1)  Open the depressurization valve on the top of the hydraulic reservoir.
2)  Attach the fill line to and open the respective hydraulic service fitting.
3)  Fill the reservoir to the desired level by reference to the sight gauge.
4)  Close the depressurization valve on the top of the reservoir.
5)  Close the valve on the service fitting.
6)  Reinstall the valve caps on the fittings.
7)  Properly stow service equipment & tools
8)  Complain that a mechanic should have done this for you.

Note:  If you have a small leak that does not ground the airplane and you have another flight or two until you see a repair facillity, relieve the hydraulic system head pressure after shutdown.  This will greatly reduce the amount of fluid that is lost, as the system won't be under the 10 psi resevoir head pressure when parked.
 
 
Hydraulics

Hydraulic System 1



 The system # 1 reservoir is located on the left side of the aft service compartment. The reservoir for system 1 has a capacity of 2.0 gallons.  System # 1 has two engine driven hydraulics pumps, one on each engine.  This system powers the following items:
 
Ailerons
Elevator
Rudder
Pitch Arthur
Leading Edge Slats
Landing Gear & Gear Doors
Nosewheel Steering
# 1 Brake System
Left Thrust Reverser



Hydraulic System 2


 The system # 2 reservoir is located on the right side of the aft service compartment.  The # 2 system reservoir has a capacity of 1.6 gallons, plus an additional 2.1 quarts that can only be used by the hydraulic standby (electric) pump.   System # 2 has one engine driven hydraulic pump on the right engine, and one electric hydraulic pump powered by the Essential Bus.  The electric hydraulic pump is controlled by a switch on the overhead panel.  With the switch off, the pump is deactivated.  With the switch in  "Auto", the pump comes on at 1500 psi, and turns off at 2400 psi.
 System two is equipped with a hydraulic isolation valve.  The "isolation valve" allows the electric hydraulic pump to power only the pitch and rudder servo actuators when the valve is in the closed position.  This valve is controlled by a switch on the overhead panel.   When the switch is "Closed", the valve is closed.  When the switch is "Open", the valve is open, and the hydraulic standby pump may power the entire # 2 hydraulic system.  With the switch in "Auto", the valve is closed when the slats are retracted, restricting the hydraulic standby pump to the elevator and rudder only, and open when the slats are extended, allowing the hydraulic standby pump to power the entire # 2 hydraulic system.
 
Ailerons
Elevator
Rudder
Airbrakes
Flaps
Emergency Slat Extension
# 2 Brake System
Parking & Emergency Brakes
Right Thrust Reverser

Note:  The "Emergency Brakes" on the Falcon 2000 are great.  If you need them, after touchdown, slowly pull the lever out and note the "G" meter on the EFIS.  Look where the Mach display was inflight, and you will see the accelleration expressed in decimal format.  You want about .25 to display, meaning braking is at one quarter of a G unit.  These brakes tend to stop the airplane in a very straight line.

 What happens if one hydraulic system fails?

System # 1 Failure

Ailerons System # 2 or manual
Elevator System # 2 or manual
Rudder System # 2 or manual
Pitch Arthur Inop: 260 K / .76 M
Slats Emergency Slat Extension
Landing Gear & Gear Doors Gear Gravity Handles
Nosewheel Steering Differential Braking
# 1 Brake System # 2 Brakes and Emgy Brakes
Left Thrust Reverser Accumulator Pressure

System # 2  Failure

Ailerons
System # 1 or manual
Elevator
System # 1 or manual
Rudder
System # 1 or manual
Airbrakes
Inoperative (Stowed by accum.)
Flaps
Inop unless Hyd Stby Pump works
Emergency Slat Extension
Slats Inop without  # 1 System
# 2 Brake System
Emergency or # 1 Brake system
Parking & Emergency Brakes
Accumulator pressure
Right Thrust Reverser
Accumulator pressure

NOTE:
 If the # 2 system engine driven pump fails, but the hydraulic standby pump is operating, the standby pump will power the elevator and the rudder with # 2 system pressure.  On the ground, or in flight with the slats extended, the hydraulic standby pump will power the entire # 2 hydraulic system.  You may elect to power the entire # 2 system in flight with the slats retracted by placing the hydraulic isolation valve switch to the "Open" position.  This would most likely be done in order to use the emergency slat extension system if the entire # 1 system had failed and the # 2 system engine driven hydraulic pump has quit.  This is not likely, but it could happen.



 
Ice Protection
     If you are having the airplane de iced while on board, turn off the APU bleed, as the fluid may enter the cabin through the air conditioning system.

Engine and wing anti-iced with engine bleed air.  As you can see, this section is not finished.


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