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Falcon 20

The Jurassic Jet

As you can see, the Falcon 20 is a good looking airplane.  The nice thing is, it flies as good as it looks.  The entire Falcon line are all airplanes that just plane feel good to fly.  I have flown most of the Falcon aircraft, and all of the flight simulators.  They all fly well.  The 2000 is my personal favorite.

Falcon 20

    The Falcon 20 is a great airplane.  It has a spacious cabin, and comfortable pilot seats.  If you want to set records for speed and range, look elsewhere.  It was limited by engine design.  The CF-700 is a very reliable engine, but is a bit of a gas hog.  The 731 Retrofit and the Falcon 200 do a bit better because of more modern fuel efficient engines.


Max Ramp
     SB 465
26,675 lbs
28,660 lbs
27,537 lbs
28,660 lbs
28,660 lbs
28,660 lbs
Max Takeoff
     SB 465
26,455 lbs
28,660 lbs
27,337 lbs
28,660 lbs
28,660 lbs
28,660 lbs
Max Landing
25,200 lbs
26,036 lbs
27,320 lbs
27,320 lbs
Max Zero Fuel
     SB 363
18,956 lbs
22,000 lbs
18,956 lbs
22,000 lbs
19,600 lbs
22,000 lbs
19,600 lbs
22,000 lbs

Vmo / Mmo

Sea Level
350 kts
350 kts
350 kts
350 kts
@ 23,400 msl
370 kts
370 kts
390 kts
390 kts
0.85 Mach
0.85 Mach
0.88 Mach
0.88 Mach


Flap 10 deg
190 kts
Flap 15 deg
200 kts
200 kts
200 kts
Flap 25 deg
190 kts
190 kts
190 kts
190 kts
Flap 40 deg
180 kts
180 kts
180 kts
180 kts
Min Flap Retract
V2 + 20
V2 + 20
V2 + 20
V2 + 30


CF-700 -2C or -2D
23 deg
30 deg
114 kts
100 kts
110 kts
  98 kts
23 deg
30 deg
120 kts
102 kts
115 kts
100 kts
Falcon 20 F Model
30 deg
100 kts
  99 kts

Misc. Speeds

DV Window
160 kts
Landing Lights
220 kts
190 kts
V airbrake
Vmo / Mmo
220 kts
Windshield Wipers
180 kts
Total Hydraulic Failure
 200 kts

Max Altitude
     Takeoff & Landing
     DLE & Flaps
42,000 ft
10,000 ft
20,000 ft
Max Tailwind Component T.O. & Land
10 kts
Demonstrated Crosswind
 25 kts
Pressurization Limits / Norm
8.3 Psid
8.5 Psid
Max Slush / Takeoff & Ldg
0.5 Inch


    The Falcon 20 has a unique fuel system.  The fuel is stored in the wings, and in two "Feeder Tanks" located in the forward portion of the tailcone compartment of the airplane.  Each wing tank contains an electric "Transfer" pump.  The "Transfer" pump pumps fuel from it's own wing to the feeder tank on the same side, keeping the feeder full, or near full until the wing fuel is exhausted.  The wing tanks are connected by an "Interconnect" valve.  This valve allows fuel to be moved from one wing tank to the other.  To do this, Open the "Interconnect" valve, and turn Off the Transfer pump on the side you wish to transfer FROM.   The operating pump sucks the fuel from the tank who's pump is off, and sends it to the feeder tank on it's own side.  The "Crossfeed" valve connects the feeder tanks.  It allows one feeder to supply fuel to either or both engines.  With the Crossfeed open, and the left boost pump off, the right feeder tank supplies fuel to both engines.
    This may seem strange, but it does allow use of all of the fuel with any two pumps failed.  For example, lets say that both fuel pumps on the right side have failed.  Open the Interconnect and the Crossfeed valves.  The Left fuel pumps are working, but not the right.  The left transfer pump sucks fuel from the right wing and sends it to the left feeder tank.  The left Boost pump provides fuel to the left engine, and also to the right engine thru the crossfeed valve.  So, all of the wing fuel, and the left feeder fuel can be delivered to the engines under pressure.  The right feeder fuel, if needed, must be suction fed.
    The wings are pressurized to about 3 psi by bleed air.  This will cause most of the wing fuel to transfer to the feeder tanks in the event of electrical failure.
    Starting with a full airplane, the engines receive fuel from the feeder tanks only.  The fuel transfer pumps keep the feeders full until the wing fuel is gone.  Then the feeders begin to empty.  When the feeder tanks are empty, good luck, you are now a glider.
    Refueling is done over wing, or by a single point refueling system if installed.  Without single point refueling, the feeder tanks are filled from the wings by the "Transfer" pumps.

Falcon 20 Fuel Panel

    As you can see, you have two double needle fuel gauges, one for the wing tanks and one for the feeders.  you should be on the ground prior to the wing fuel being depleted.  The feeders on all but the C model only give you about 20 minutes at low altitude.  The large feeders give only another 10 minutes more than the small ones.  Stay ahead of this.  A clear day with another airport within 10 or 20 miles is one thing, but that is not always the case.  Don't put yourself in a position with only one acceptable option.

Falcon 20 Fuel Pump Switches
( Overhead Panel )

Fuel Capacity

8,230 lbs
1,233 gal
With SB 278
8,317 lbs
1,246 gal
D & E 
8,831 lbs
1,323 gal
F Model
9,098 lbs
1,363 gal

    This may seem like lots of fuel, however, the first hour uses close to 3,200 lbs.  The second hour sucks up around 2,500 lbs or so at 440 knots.  Long range cruise is still around 2,000 lbs per hour at 400 knots.  This means you can go fast for about two and a half hours, or long range cruise it and go about 3 hours.  In a no wind situation, this means about 1,100 to 1,200 nautical miles in good weather with no headwind.  Nonstop coast to coast, sure, in Panama or Costa Rica!!!  The 731 Conversion Falcon will do about 1,800 nautical, and the Falcon 200 maybe a little bit more.


System 1
L Hyd Pump
System 2
R Hyd Pump
Ailerons Ailerons
 Elevator Elevator
 Rudder Rudder 
 Airbrake Yaw Damper
 Nose Steering Aileron Variable Belcrank
Landing Gear Elevator Variable Belcrank
 Trailing Edge Flaps Emergency Gear Extension
Leading Edge Flaps Emergency Gear Door Extension
Parking & Emergency Brakes

    The Aux hydraulic pump can be used to power System 2 Flight Controls Only.   It can power all of the System 1 devices if the aircraft has a reasonable Mod / Service Bulletin status.  It does, however, depend on the individual airplane.  Pressure from System 2 can be used to perform limited System 1 functions with the 0.58 gallon "Transfer Jack" if it is charged prior to the System 1 pump failure.

System 1 Failure

Landing Gear
 System 2 Provides Extension Only
Gear Doors Remain Open
Emergency Flaps, Xfer Jack or Manual Extension
Xfer Jack or Airbrake Inop 
System 2 Brakes
No Anti Skid

System 2 Failure

Landing Gear
 System 1 or Manual Extension
System 1 or Manual Extension
System 1 Powered
System 1 Brakes


    Below, you see a typical Falcon 20 Electrical Control Panel.  It is on the top of the overhead switch panel in the center of the overhead.  There are many inverter systems available on the Falcon 20, but none are really beyond comprehension.  The DC side is fairly standard.
    Don't forget to turn the Aux Bus off when shutting down the airplane if you plan to use the batteries without a trip to the shop.

Electrical Panel


    Engine bleed air provides air conditioning and pressurization.  It comes from the 8th stage compressor of each engine.  It goes thru a heat exchanger and a cooling turbine in order to reduce the temperature.  Temperature is regulated by a temperature control valve that is electrically actuated.  Both AC and DC power are required to electrically control the temperature.  Manual and automatic temperature control is available.  One problem with the manual system is that there is no valve position indicator, so a lot of guessing is necessary.  The valve takes over a minute to go from full cold to full hot, or back.
    Pressurization is regulated by an electric system in automatic, and by pneumatically positioning the outflow valve.  Crude but effective.  In automatic, it works quite well.
    The 8th stage engine bleed air flows through heat exchangers, then through a cooling turbine and into the cabin.  The cooling turbine drives a compressor that provides ejector air, increasing the airflow across the heat exchangers.  Temperature control is achieved via a temperature control valve that regulates how much bleed air goes thru the cooling turbine, and how much bypasses it.
    APU air provides air conditioning and electrical power on the ground only.  There is not a whole lot to monitor as far as the APU goes.  It has an rpm gauge, an amp gauge, and that's it.  Everything else is automatic.

    The CF-700 is one of the early fan engines.  It is really just a CJ-610 with a free wheeling fan mounted on the back.  This raises the thrust from around 3,000 lbs to the 4,100 lb to 4,500 lb range.  There is some improvement in specific fuel consumption.  If the CJ-610 or it's variant was to power an airplane over 20,000 lbs gross weight, it needed the fan and the new name to do it.  Prior to the introduction of the 731 Engine, the CF-700 was the only way to go.  It is also found on one model of the Saberliner.

Engine Limitations

CF-700 2C/2D
Oil Press
Oil Temp
Start / 5 Sec
854 C
175 psi
- 40 C Type 2 
- 54 C / Type 1
101.2 %
730 C
740 C
5 - 65 psi
193 C
185 C
Max Cont
     SB 455 GE 77-7
     2D2 Engine
100.0 %
705 C
724 C
724 C
5 - 65 psi
185 C

Note:  The N1 is the engine core, and the N2 is the fan section.  This is the only popular biz jet engine where this is the case.  Remember, the fan is on the back of the engine.

Engine Thrust

CF-700 2C
4,125 lbs
CF-700 2D
4,250 lbs
CF-700 2D2
4,315 lbs
CF-700 2D2 / SB 520
4,500 lbs

Engine Start Panel

Recomended Minimum N1
SL to 12,000 ft
12,000 ft to 25,000 ft
Above 25,000 ft


    There are 7 diferent APU options on the Falcon 20.  The switches and gauges are different. See the AFM Suppliment for the particular airplane you intend to fly for APU Limitations and Operating Procedures.
Ice & Rain Protection

    The Windshields are electrically heated, as are the Pitot Tubes & AOA vanes.  The engines and wing are anti iced with hot bleed air from the engines.  The tail is not heated, as not enough ice will form there to be a problem.  The use of anti ice on takeoff will probably reduce your maximum takeoff weight by between one thousand and two thousand pounds.  With the engine and the wing heated up, the Falcon 20 performs like a very large, very fat pig.  That is the nicest way I can think of to say it, and I like the airplane!
    It takes several minutes to get the wing up to temperature, and a bit less time to heat up the engine nacelles.  Think ahead and heat 'em up early if you are going to need them.
    The red lights tell you if the valves are operating properly, and the green ones illuminate when the temperatures reach a safe level for operating in icing conditions.  They take a while to come on after the system has been activated, and stay on for a short time after the anti ice is turned off.  This is normal
    If you must use engine anti ice or both engine and wing heat, you may have to make the approach with the airbrake extended in order to have enough bleed air to do the job.  If so, remember:

1.  If the Airbrake is not retracted by 500 ft AGL, Land with it Extended.  Add 5 or 10 knots to your approach speed, as your stall speed will increase.
2.  If you are unable to turn off the wing heat immediately after Landing, shut both       engines down on the runway or ruin the leading edges.  They cost big bucks.

Ice Protection Panel
( Overhead )

    The amber Transfer light alerts you to the fact that one of the windshield heat controllers has failed, and the other is regulating all the heated windows.  It works fine like this, and from a pilot standpoint is a maintenance write up and a possible MEL item.

Ambient Temp.
Recomended N1
Minimum N1
-20 C or Colder
-10 C to -19 C
-5 C to -9 C
-4 C or Warmer

    Remember: It takes time to heat up.  Extension of the airbrake may be necessary in order to comply with this chart.  ATC may ask you to slow down, give your best rate of descent, and God knows what else.  Your airplane can only do what it can do.  Comply with reasonable requests when you can, but don't hesitate to say "Unable" when necessary.  You are the Captain ATC tries to do a good job, and usually does, however, they are not usually qualified to fly your aircraft, nor will they die in the crash.
Flight Profiles

    Here are some basic flight profiles that I have used over the years.  They are not the only way to fly the airplane, but have worked for me since I started giving training and checkrides in the Lear a little over 20 years ago.  In the event of a difference between this and the Aircraft Flight Manual, the flight manual is the document to follow.

Steep Turns

1.  Enter at 250 KTS indicated AIRSPEED.
2.  Bank aircraft 45 deg.  As you pass 30 deg of bank, pitch up 2 deg.  Add power to maintain AIRSPEED.
3.  Lead roll out by 15 deg.  Passing 30 deg bank, pitch down 2 deg  to maintain  altitude.
4.  Maintain 250 KTS and assigned heading.

Stall - Cruise Configuration

1.    Compute Vref & set AIRSPEED bugs.
2.    Maintain assigned altitude and set power to Idle.
3.    Trim for level flight until reaching trim stop for Zero Flaps
4.    At first indication of a stall,  throttles to " MAX POWER "
5.    Call " MAX  POWER Flaps 15 deg.
6     Reduce pitch ONLY to the extent necessary to eliminate symptoms of the stall.
7.    Reestablish assigned altitude.
8.    At Vref + 30 KTS, call " Flaps Up, After Takeoff Checklist.  "
9.    Maintain AIRSPEED and altitude as directed.

Stall - Takeoff Configuration

1.  Compute Vref, set AIRSPEED bugs & select flaps 15 deg.
2.  Maintain assigned altitude and set power to 70% N1.
3.  Trim for level flight until passing 150 KTS.
4.  Maintain altitude with necessary back pressure.
5.  At first indication of stall, advance throttles & call " MAX POWER ".
6.  Level wings & reduce pitch ONLY to enough to eliminate symptoms of the stall.
7.  Reestablish assigned altitude.
8.  At Vref + 30 KTS, call " Flaps Up, After Takeoff Checklist.  "
9.  Maintain AIRSPEED and altitude as directed.

Stall - Landing Configuration

 1.   Slow to flap speed, set 80% N1 & Set bug to Vref.
 2.   Maintain assigned heading & altitude.
 3.   Below 200 KTS, " Flaps 15 deg".
 4.   Below 190 KTS, " Flaps 25 deg".
 5.   Gear Down Landing Check.
 6.   Below 180 KTS, " Full flaps. " trim to Vref. Establish a 400-700 feet/min sink rate at Vref.
 7.   Level off at designated altitude  W I T H O U T increase in power
 8.   Maintain altitude until  first indication of a stall.
 9.   Apply MAX power lower nose only as much as required to eliminate the stall warning.
      At Vref minus 10 KTS   M I N I M U M  speed, call for " Flaps 25 deg",
      At Vref  call for " Flaps 15 deg",
10.  When VSI & Altimeter indicate positive rate of climb call " Positive rate, Gear Up ".
11.  Establish 7.5 deg nose up attitude.
12.  At Vref + 30 KTS, Call " Flaps Up, After Takeoff Checklist ".
13.  Return to entry heading and altitude or as directed.

ILS Approach - Two Engines

1.  Intercept LOC at 140-160 KTS and Flaps 20 deg.
2.  One dot prior to intercepting Glide Slope, call " Gear Down Landing Check ".
3.  When ON the glide path, call " Full Flaps ".
4.  Establish Vref to Vref + 5 KTS & track LOC & GS until Minimums.

ILS Approach - One Engine

 1.  Intercept LOC at 140-160 KTS and Flaps 8 deg.
 2.  One dot prior to intercepting Glide Slope, call " Gear Down Landing Check ".
 3.  When ON the glide path, call "Flaps 25 deg".
 4.  Establish Vref + 15 KTS & track LOC & GS
 5.  At 100 Ft AGL, Full flaps, power idle & land.
      F Model requires power down to flare altitude.

Non Precision Approach - One or Two Engines

1.    Intercept Final Approach Course at 140 KTS and Flaps 25 deg.
2.    Crossing Final Approach Fix, call " Gear Down Landing Check ".
3.    Descend to and maintain MDA until Field in Sight or MAP is initiated. ( As Appropriate ).
4.    If Landing is to be made, call " Full Flaps " when intercepting a glide path appropriate for a
       normal landing.  For one engine INOP, Vref + 15 KTS until 100 feet AGL, then " Full
       Flaps" so as to descend thru 50 ft AGL at Vref as in a normal landing.

No Flap Approach

See Chart in AFM for speed adjustments for specific situation.

Go Around or Missed Approach

1.  "Max Power", Rotate to 10 deg, " Flaps 15 deg".
2.  Positive Rate of Climb, " Gear Up ", Vref + 30, " Flaps up, After Takeoff Checklist ".
3.  Climb at 200 KTS.
4.  Engine Failure or Fire Checklist if Appropriate.


1.  Set V2 on Capt. Airspeed & V1 on Co-Pilots Airspeed.
2.  At V 1, BOTH hands on Yoke.
3.  Vr, Rotate to 15 deg ( 2 eng ) 12 deg ( 1 eng ).
4.  Climb at 15 deg pitch, ( 2 eng ) or V 2 ( 1 eng ).
5.  At 400 ft & V2+30 KTS, "Flaps Up After T.O. Check ".
6.  Engine Failure or Fire Checklist if Appropriate.
7.  Climb  200 KTS to 3000 AGL then 250 Kts.

Rejected Takeoff

1.  Proceed as in normal takeoff until malfunction dictates that the takeoff be rejected.
2.  Capt. calls "Abort" (Co-Pilot may call Abort if Capt elects to delegate that authority).
3.  Thrust levers to idle
4.  Airbrake extend.
5.  Wheel brakes as necessary.
6.  Thrust Reverse OR Drag chute deploy.  (Never Both!)
7.  If another takeoff is contemplated consider brake energy & appropriate turnaround time.

Emergency Descent

 1.    Oxygen masks on within 5 sec of cabin pressure loss.
 2.    Check passenger oxygen masks deployed.
 3.     Select Oxygen mask microphone.
 4.    Ignition ON.
 5.    Thrust levers to idle.
 6.    Auto Pilot OFF
 7.    Airbrake extend
 8.    Initiate 45 deg bank if desired.
 9.    Vmo/Mmo minus 10 kts to 14,000 or MEA as required.
10.  Clean up & proceed to nearest suitable airport if appropriate.  Condition of aircraft or
       reduced range due to low altitude may make flight to original destination unwise.

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