Lear Jet  23

 *Study Guide*

     The Lear 23 is a light twin engine jet, certificated under part 23 of the FAR's.  With only minor modifications or upgrades, it can be converted to a Lear 24 which is certified in the transport category.  The main differences between the Lear 23 & 24 are the windshield, Vmo, main wheels, brakes, and the fuel system.  The limitations in the performance section of the manual are "Limitations", not advisory data. The AFM states that these performance based weight limits are not to be exceeded, even though the aircraft is certificated under FAR Part 23.  All of the Lear Jets other than the 23 are certificated under FAR Part 25, Transport Category Aircraft.  It is a small airplane with a bunch of power.  It performs quite well, even when compared to some of the military jets of it's day.  If you can fly one of these well, you should not have any trouble checking out in any other jet airplane.  It won't keep up with an F-104 (Not much will, even today), but will blow the doors of a T-33.  In any event, you should find it to be one of the most challenging and fun aircraft you will ever fly.  At 10,000 feet, it will exceed 300 knots indicated airspeed in level flight ON ONE ENGINE!!!  Give it respect, or it will bite!



Lear 23
Max Ramp Weight 12,749 lbs
Max Takeoff Weight 12,499 lbs
Max Landing Weight 11,880 lbs 
Max Wing Bending Weight    9,000 lbs 
Max Baggage Comp.      500 lbs
Typical Empty Weight  6,800 lbs

   * All weight in excess of the Max ZFW must be fuel in the Wing and tip tanks.

  The above weights are maximum certificated limits.  The actual maximum weights for a particular flight may vary a great deal due to performance limitations.  If the aircraft can not meet the required "Takeoff Field Length" and "Climb" limitations, (engine out climb performance), the maximum takeoff and/or landing weights are reduced such that the requirements are met.  See the performance charts in the AFM for details.

Lear 23
358 kts 
0.82 M
196 kts
            20 Deg 
            40 Deg 
170 kts 
151 kts
202 kts 
263 kts 
(Not with flaps when airborne)
Vmo / Mmo 
 82 kts 
 93 kts 
Nosewheel  Steering 
                Primary          ( 45 deg )
               Wheel Master  ( 10 deg )
 10 kts 
 45 kts
Max Tire Groundspeed
174 kts

  Yaw Damper Off for T.O., On for Flight, Optional for LDG
 Airplane shall be configured for landing by 500 ft AGL

Lear 23
Max Alt T.O. & LDG
10,000 ft
Max Enroute Altitude 
41,000 ft
Max Cabin Pressure 

8.30 psi
8.77 psi
Min Temp T.O. & LDG 
Max Runway Clutter 
-50 Deg C
0.75 inch
Max Tailwind T.O/ LDG 
Max X-Wind Takeoff / Land 
10 kts
28.5 kts
Max Runway Slope
Max Tip Fuel / Landing
640 lbs
Load Factor Limit 
    Flaps Up 
    Flaps Extended 

4.40 G
2.00 G
Max Fuel Imbalance 
800 lbs 

Note: The 800 pound fuel imbalance limit is to be approached with caution.  To land or take off with this much of an imbalance requires full aileron, leaving no margin for error.  A 300 pound imbalance can bite you if you are not aware of it.  The unmodified Lear 23 can only transfer from tip to tip.  If you get a fuel boost pump failure in one tip tank, turn the other one off, and land with the tips balanced if you can.  If this is not an option, a steep bank and a bit of "Top Rudder" can use gravity to get some of the fuel to flow into the wing.

Engine Limitations

Lear Jet 23
                            CJ-610-1   2700 lb Thrust
 950 C 
101,2 %
702 C 
5 Minutes 
Max Continuous
100.0 %
693 C
No Limit
Climb Power
  98.0 %
693 C
Max Overspeed
103.2 % 
See Chart 

Above 12,000 MSL and below 160 kts engine rpm 70% or above to prevent roll back (idle decay)

Lear 23 With 24 Modifications
CJ-610-4   2850 lb Thrust   Note:  See AFM for Performance Data
8-10% Min
950 C 
101,2 %
5 Minutes 
Max Continuous
100.0 %
702 C
No Limit
Climb Power
98.0 %
Max Overspeed
103.2 %
See Chart
Note:  VMC is higher due to the increased thrust.

 Engine Oil System Limitations
CJ-610 Series 
Max Oil Temp 
127 C 
140 C
Min Oil Temp for Start 
- 40 C
Max oil consumption / hour 
0.4 Pints 
Max Oil Press during Start
175 psi
Max Oil Press / 12 Minutes above 95%
  70 psi
Max Cont. Oil Pressure
  60 psi

Note:  Idle both engines for at lease 3 Minutes prior to takeoff if ambient temp is below - 25 C
This warms the oil and the hydraulic fluid.
See AFM for Approved oils. Do not mix brands of oil.

Lear Jet 23 Systems
Flight Controls

Primary Flight Controls
    The ailerons, elevator and rudder on the Lear Jet are manually actuated by the pilots.  Aileron and rudder trim is achieved with trim tabs on the rudder, and left aileron.  These trim tabs are positioned by electric motors located inside the left aileron and the rudder it's self.  Pitch trim is achieved by changing the position of the moveable horizontal stabilizer.  There are two trim motors that will do this, a primary, and a secondary.    The aileron, rudder, and primary pitch trim are controlled with a thumb switch on the left side of the Capt.'s and right side of the Co-Pilot's control yoke.  The secondary trim is actuated by the autopilot, and can be controlled by an  electric switch on the console in the event the primary trim fails.
    The aircraft does have an autopilot, although not a very good one until you get to the 31, 45, 55 or 60.  The ailerons and elevator may be moved by the autopilot servos, and the rudder is equipped with a primary and secondary yaw damper.  Both yaw dampers are required for flight although only one may be engaged at a time.
    The Lear Jet has two stall warning systems.  They are the same.  Both are required for flight.  Angle of attack information is given to the system by two angle of attack vanes located on the left and right sides of the nose of the aircraft.  These vanes are heated when the pitot heat switch is on.  They get hot enough to burn you, so touch them with caution.
    About 7% above a stall, the system warns you with a flashing stall warning annunciator light, and by activating the stick shaker.  At about 5% above a stall, the autopilot pitch servo applies an 80 pound push on the elevator.  If you do not notice this, you deserve to crash!  It is hard to ignore.
    There is a "Wheel Master" button just below the trim actuator on each pilot's yoke.  It  is a handy little guy.  It interrupts any elevator trim action, deactivates the stick pusher, disengages the autopilot, and will engage the nosewheel steering if the gear is down.

 The trim check very important on the Lear Jet, as the trim system on this aircraft, if not properly set can KILL you within seconds after liftoff.  Excuse the lack of tact here, but it's a fact.  Perform the trim check prior to takeoff.

    The flaps on the Lear are hydraulically actuated.  The flaps are controlled in one of two ways, depending on the model lear.  Most have one switch with three positions, Extend, retract, and off.  Select extend, or retract until the flaps are in the desired position, then select off.  Some Lears have preselect where you place a lever in the desired flap position, and the flaps extend to the position requested.  If the flaps will not extend, add 30 kts to your approach speed and 30% to your landing distance.
    There is pressure relief valve in the flap system that will prevent damage to the flaps if they are inadvertently extended or left down at speeds in excess of their operating limitations.

    Lear Jets are equipped with spoilers.  They may be deployed up to Vmo / Mmo in flight only when the flaps are retracted.  On landing, they should be deployed just after touchdown.  They are hydraulically actuated, and electrically controlled.  They have two positions, fully deployed, and stowed.

Nosewheel Steering
    The nosewheel steering on the Lear is electric.  It requires both AC and DC to operate.  Steering is engaged with the wheel master switch, or by Primary Steering Button on the left and right sides of the instrument panel. .  Maximum speeds for use of nosewheel steering is either 45 knots, or 10 knots, depending on the steering mode selected. Be gentle with the nose steering on in the Lear, or it will make you look very stupid.  Once you get the hang of the early steering systems, however, you can make a 180 degree turn in very little more than the airplane's own length.  This requires a trick or two, but can be done!

Landing Gear
    Like all other aircraft intended for more than one flight, the Lear jet has a landing gear.  It is extended and retracted hydraulically, and controlled electrically.  It can be extended with high pressure nitrogen if the normal extension fails.  The nose gear doors are mechanically linked to the nose gear, as are the outboard main gear doors.  The inboard main gear doors are hydraulic.  During an emergency gear extension, they are blown open with nitrogen, and remain extended for the landing.

    Each main landing gear on the Lear Jet has two wheels and tires.  Each wheel has it's own hydraulic brake, with anti-skid protection.  The brakes on the left gear are controlled by pressure applied to either of the left brake pedals, and the right brakes work the same way from the right pedal pressure.  The anti-skid system can relieve the brake pressure on any individual wheel.
    If the hydraulic brake system fails, there is an alternate brake system that will apply the brakes with high pressure nitrogen.  The same bottle is used for emergency gear extension.  The emergency brake system does not provide any anti-skid, or differential braking capability.  It is a good system, and if you use it with your brain engaged, it works fine.

** Prior to takeoff, ALWAYS check the 3 Killer Items **

These things can kill you before you have time to fix them.

Fuel System

Fuel Capacity
Lear 23
Fuel ( lbs )
Endurance (VFR reserve)
0.77 Mach / 440 kts

Fuel Type
Jet A / Jp-5
- 29 C Min for Takeoff
- 29 C Min for Takeoff
Jet B / Jp-4 
- 54 C Min for Takeoff
+ 90 F Max for Takeoff
15,000 ft  & 25 hr max
      All fuels Must contain Prist or other anti-icing additive conforming to MIL-I-27686.  One can of Prist for each 104 to 260 Gal of fuel added.

Lear 23 Fuel System
     The fuel system of the Lear 23 requires a bit more attention than it's later offspring.  It consists of five tanks, seven electric fuel pumps and two electric valves.  It has two tip tanks, two wing tanks and one fuselage tank. The engines draw fuel from their respective wing tank ONLY.  The tip and fuselage tanks must transfer their fuel to the wing tanks in order for it to be used.  The tip tanks each have one electric fuel pump which pumps fuel from the tip tank into the wing as wing fuel is used, thus keeping the wing tank full until the tip tank is empty.  When the tip tank is empty, an amber light will illuminate just below the tiptank pump switch.  When this occurs, turn the tip pump off.  Fuselage fuel transfer to the wing tanks is made by placing the fuselage tank switch to transfer.  This is the center switch in the fuel system control panel.  Placing this switch to transfer opens the fuselage tank valve and turns on the fuselage tank pump.  The fuel is then transferred to BOTH wing tanks.  When the fuselage tank is empty, turn the transfer switch off.  Transfer the fuselage fuel as soon as you reach cruise altitude, as a DC electrical failure (valve and pump are DC powered) will make the remaining fuel in the fuselage tank unusable.
     To fuel the Lear 23, make sure there is enough fuel in the left wing to fill the fuselage tank, then fill the fuselage tank   This is done by placing the "Fuselage Tank Switch" to "Fill".  (Capt.'s lower left panel).  This is a different switch than is used to transfer to the wings.   The fuel is then pumped from the LEFT wing tank into the fuselage tank.  If the left wing does not have enough fuel to fill the fus tank, add fuel, them fill the fus tank.  Weird ! Lear 24's & later have a better system.  Have the fueler put 125 gallons in one side, then 250 in the other and go back and forth until full.  (If full fuel is desired.)  Make sure that the fuel imbalance does not exceed 125 gal or 800 lb.  The fuel capacity of the Lear 23 is 5590 lbs.  If the weather is good, be on short final after no more than 3 hours.

Do not X-fer or X-feed below 5000 ft and above 95% Rpm

Do not takeoff blo -29 deg C with other than JP-4/Jet B
    This is a fuel viscosity limit.  The Jet A / JP-5 fuels are too thick below this temperature.
    The military uses JP-4 / Jet B, as it can be used down to -54 C.

Do not fly above 25,000 ft with "Hot Fuel" light ON.
Hydraulic System

    The Lear Jet hydraulic system consist of  2 engine driven, and one electric hydraulic pump, a 1.9 gallon reservoir, an accumulator (two accumulators if Dee Howard reversers are installed) and a couple of pressure relief valves.  The fluid is 5606 therefore if you spill some on yourself, you won't wind up looking like you and Michael Jackson share the same dermatologist.  The system operates the landing gear, normal braking with anti-skid, the flaps, spoilers, and thrust reversers.
    The reservoir is pressurized by cabin air on earlier Lears.  This is to prevent foaming.  The engine driven hydraulic pumps can only access 1.5 of the 1.9 gallons of hydraulic fluid.  The additional 0.4 gallons can be used by the electric hydraulic pump only.  It can extend the landing gear, the flaps, provide normal braking with anti-skid, and on the 20 series only, extend the spoilers.  The hydraulic thrust reversers have their own accumulator, and should be useable even with total hydraulic failure.
    The system has two pressure relief valves, one main system relief valve, that relieves at 1700 to 1750 psi, and one relief valve in the flap system that relieves about 1650 psi.  See "Flaps' in the flight controls section for more details on this.
    With total hydraulic system failure, blow the gear down, approach at Vref + 30 kts, use pneumatic brakes, and plan on 1.7 to 2.0 times your normal landing distance.  T/R's should work, however they can never be considered as a factor when determining how much runway you need for takeoff or landing.
Electrical System

"DC" Electrical System
     The Lear 23 DC electrical system is simple as systems go.   The Lear Jet electrical system consists of two 24 or  volt batteries, two 400 amp starter/generators, left and right DC Busses, and two 275 Amp current limiters.  (Current limiters are nothing more than slo-blo fuses).

Current Limiter Check
     The current limiter check tests the current limiters to verify that they have not been blown.  The time you are most likely to blow a current limiter is immediately after engine start, when the batteries are low.  The generator is put on line, and the "hungry" batteries (Ni-Cad's) wish to recharge themselves ASAP.  They can draw 300 to 400 amps or more. This is more than the poor 275 Amp current limiter can take for longer than a moment, so it blows.  Cut down in the prime of life!  A blown current limiter could prevent you from resetting a tripped generator under some conditions.  If you have a blown current limiter, replace it prior to departure.   After both engines are started and generators are on line, check the current limiters as follows:

1.  Pull the "Main DC Bus Tie" breaker
2.  Take the left generator off line and check that the right generator picks up the load.
     Check that left DC bus   items are powered.  If so, left current limiter is OK.
     Reset left generator.
3.  Take the right generator off line and check that the
     left generator picks up the load.  Check that the right DC bus items are powered.
     If so, the right current limiter is OK.  Reset right generator.
4.  Reset the "Main DC Bus Tie" breaker.

     ** Current Limiter Check is Complete **

"AC" Electrical System
    The AC power on this aircraft is supplied by two inverters, a main and a standby.  The inverters are controlled by a three position switch.  The positions are "Main", "Off", and "Standby".  Off is obvious.   In the "Main" position, the standby inverter powers the WX radar, and the main inverter powers all of the remaining AC devices on the aircraft.  In the standby position, the standby inverter powers the main AC bus, and the Radar is not powered.  It must still be turned off, as the AVQ 21 radar has DC components that will overheat without the cooling fan which is AC powered.

AC Devices - Lear 23
Main AC Bus
  1.  L & R Attitude Gyros
  2.  L & R Directional Gyros (HSI's)
  3.  L & R Oil Pressure Gauges
  4.  Anti-Skid Computer
  5.  Pressurization Controller (Automatic mode)
  6.  Fuel Quantity Gauge
  7.  Altitude Alert System
  8.  Nosewheel Steering System
  9.  EPR Gauges on some 23's
       The DC EPR gauges were worthless.
Standby AC Bus
  1.  Weather Radar

       The engines are started with the inverter switch in the "Off" position.  After start, place the inverter switch in the "Standby" position.  This allows the standby inverter to power the main AC bus, powering the items on the main AC bus.  The oil pressure gauge is the one we are after at this point.  If a single engine taxi is desired, the nosewheel steering will also be of some use unless you wish only to taxi in a very tight circle away from the operating engine.  Turn the inverter off during the second engine start.  After both engines are running, set the inverter switch to "Main".  This will allow the main inverter to power the AC items listed on the previous page, and the standby inverter to power the WX Radar.  If the main inverter fails, you may select "Standby" to power the main AC Bus.  This will result in loss of the WX Radar.  Turn the radar off after performing this procedure, as the cooling fan in most radar sets installed in Lear 23's are AC, but there are some DC components that are still powered, which may cause the set to overheat, and consume large amounts of money and make you look a bit stupid in the process..

Standby Battery

    The standby battery switch has three positions: OFF, STANDBY, and ON.  In the ON position the emergency battery powers the small third attitude indicator, it's light, and the control circuits for the landing gear and flap systems. The three green landing gear lights are also powered by the emergency battery, and will illuminate when the gear is down and locked.  The red "gear door not locked" lights are not powered by this battery.  In standby, it powers just the gyro and it's light.  Most of these batteries will charge in the ON and Standby positions, however, some, such as the ones in the Lear 28 must be left "ON" to be charged.   Some later model aircraft may be equipped with a second standby battery.  This will usually power an emergency comm radio, and whatever other devices the customer would like.

If you experience loss of all main DC bus power for any reason, remember the following:

 1.  Emergency battery switch to ON.  Landing gear extension will be normal
      except for the loss of the red gear door warning lights.
 2.  Landing gear warning horn will be inop.
 3.  Engine stator and nacelle lip heat are on.
 4.  Wing and tail anti-ice, pitot static, and angle of attack probe heat will be inop.
 5.  Windshield Heat will fail in the last position selected.
 6.  Tank to tank fuel transfer will not be possible if crossflow valve
       was closed at time of power loss. If crossflow valve was open, the
       boost pumps will fail, making pressure fuel transfer impossible, however,
       the crossflow valve will remain open, allowing some fuel transfer due to a
       very reliable power source called gravity.
 7.  The AC electrical system will be inop as it receives it's power from the DC system.
 8.  The hydraulic system will be inop, except for the landing gear and flaps, as their
       control circuitry is powered by the emergency battery when the "ON" position
       is selected.
 9.  Nosewheel steering  will be inop, as it requires both AC and DC electrical power.
10.  Anti-Skid system is inop.

These things may require some thought as to how one wishes to conduct the remainder of a flight.

Normal Operation:
     Battery switches ON, before engine start, all DC busses are powered by batteries or GPU.  After engine start, all busses are powered by the generator(s), and the batteries are recharged.

Battery Overheat
     Respective battery switch OFF. This prevents battery charging.  DC busses powered by generator(s).  Monitor temp of offending battery.  If your lear does not have dual battery switches, use the battery disconnect switch for the offending battery.  All 30 series and later Lears have dual battery switches.

Generator / Batteries
Voltage 28.5  Volt
Generators  400 Amps
Batteries 1 & 2  24 Volt / 39 Amp Hour 
Note: The 39 amp batteries are the big ones.  They come as small as 24 Amp Hour.
In the last 5 years or so, Lead Acid batteries have come a long way, and are installed in many jets that previously had Ni-Cad's.
Ice Protection

    Most 20 series, and all later Lear Jets are certified for flight into known or forecast icing conditions.  The Lear 23, however was not a known ice airplane without modifications.  The tail was not heated, and the radome had no anti-ice system.  If you lost a generator, you lost nacelle heat on that side.  ECR 771 was the mod kit to make the airplane legal to fly in icing conditions.  If these mods were installed, starting from the front of the airplane, the radome is anti-iced by alcohol that is pumped onto it through a plastic nozzle located at the very front of the airplane.  The same alcohol pump provides emergency anti-ice for the left windshield.  You have about 90 minutes for the radome, and 45 minutes for the radome and windshield together.
    The pitot tubes, static ports, and angle of attack vanes are electrically heated, controlled by the "Pitot Heat" switches in the cockpit.  The windshields are heated with engine bleed air.  The wing leading edges are heated by bleed air.  The horizontal stabilizer has an electric heating element attached to it's leading edge.  This draws about 90 amps when used.
    Engine nacelles are electrically heated, and the stators and engine front frame is heated with bleed air.  On the "Non Ice" lears, if you lost one generator, you lost the heat to that nacelle.  ECR 771 fixed that, as well as added the radome anti-ice in order to gain certification for known ice operation.


    The Lear 23 is pressurized, like most airplanes, by engine bleed air.  This air comes from the 8th stage compressor on the engine through a heat exchanger in the tailcone of the airplane, and is cooled, then goes into the cabin.  Temperature is regulated by a "Damper Valve".  This valve controlls the ambient airflow across the non pressurized side of the heat exchanger.  This does not provide enough cooling for low altitude and hot weather, so a freon airconditioner is provided for use below 15,000 feet.
    Emergency pressurization air is provided by way of the windshield heat system.  Place the defog knob so the windshield air goes to the inside of the airplane, and you have another source of air for pressurization.  This system bypasses the flow control valve and heat exchanger.
    On the outflow side of things, the cabin pressure is regulated by a main outflow valve, located at the forward end of the pressure vessel.  The automatic pressurization system requires AC power.  In the event the automatic pressurization fails, cabin pressure may be controlled pneumatically, by the "Cherry Picker" that uses air to move the outflow valve.  Maximum differential  pressure relief at 8.7 psi, and negative pressure relief at -  0.25 psi.  This "Safety outflow valve" is strictly mechanical.  It requires no electrical power.

Flight Profiles

    Here are some basic flight profiles that I have used over the years.  They are not the only way to fly the airplane, but have worked for me since I started giving training and checkrides in the Lear a little over 20 years ago.  In the event of a difference between this and the Aircraft Flight Manual, the flight manual is the document to follow.

Steep Turns

1.  Enter at 250 KTS indicated AIRSPEED.
2.  Bank aircraft 45 deg.  As you pass 30 deg of bank, pitch up 2 deg.  Add power to maintain AIRSPEED.
3.  Lead roll out by 15 deg.  Passing 30 deg bank, pitch down 2 deg  to maintain  altitude.
4.  Maintain 250 KTS and assigned heading.

Stall - Cruise Configuration

1.    Compute Vref & set AIRSPEED bugs.
2.    Maintain assigned altitude and set power to Idle.
3.    Trim for level flight until passing 150 KTS.  Maintain altitude with necessary back pressure.
4.    At stick shaker or stall warning lights,  throttles to " MAX POWER "
5.    Call " MAX  POWER Flaps Approach.
6     Reduce pitch ONLY to the extent necessary to eliminate symptoms of the stall.
7.    Reestablish assigned altitude.
8.    At Vref + 30 KTS, call " Flaps Up, After Takeoff Checklist.  "
9.    Maintain AIRSPEED and altitude as directed.

Stall - Takeoff Configuration

1.  Compute Vref, set AIRSPEED bugs & select flaps 20.
2.  Maintain assigned altitude and set power to 65% N1.
3.  Trim for level flight until passing 150 KTS.
4.  Maintain altitude with necessary back pressure.
5.  At stick shaker or stall lights, advance throttles & call " MAX POWER ".
6.  Reduce pitch ONLY to the extent necessary to eliminate symptoms of the stall.
7.  Reestablish assigned altitude.
8.  At Vref + 30 KTS, call " Flaps Up, After Takeoff Checklist.  "
9.  Maintain AIRSPEED and altitude as directed.

Stall - Landing Configuration

1.    Slow to flap speed, set 80% N1 & Set bug to Vref.
2.    Maintain assigned heading & altitude.
3.    Below 170 KTS, " Flaps 20 deg".
4.    Below 202 KTS, " Gear Down Landing Check ".
5.    Below 150 KTS, " Full flaps. " trim to Vref. Establish a 400-700 feet/min sink rate at Vref.
6.    Level off at designated altitude  W I T H O U T increase in power
7.    Maintain altitude until  first indication of a stall. (Shaker or stall lights)
8.    Apply MAX power lower nose only as much as required to eliminate the stall warning.
       At Vref minus 10 KTS   M I N I M U M  speed, call for " Flaps 20 deg", and increase the
       pitch attitude to 10 deg nose up at about 1 deg / sec.
9.    When VSI & Altimeter indicate positive rate of climb call " Positive rate, Gear Up ".
10.  Establish 7.5 deg nose up attitude.
11.  At Vref + 30 KTS, Call " Flaps Up, After Takeoff Checklist ".
12.  Return to entry heading and altitude or as directed.

ILS Approach - Two Engines

1.  Intercept LOC at 140-160 KTS and Flaps 20 deg.
2.  One dot prior to intercepting Glide Slope, call " Gear Down Landing Check ".
3.  When ON the glidepath, call " Full Flaps ".
4.  Establish Vref to Vref + 5 KTS & track LOC & GS until Minimums.

ILS Approach - One Engine

 1.  Intercept LOC at 140-160 KTS and Flaps 8 deg.
 2.  One dot prior to intercepting Glide Slope, call " Gear Down Landing Check ".
 3.  When ON the glidepath, call "Flaps 20 deg".
 4.  Establish Vref + 20 KTS & track LOC & GS
 5.  At 100-150 Ft AGL, Full flaps, power idle & land.

Non Precision Approach - One or Two Engines

1.    Intercept Final Approach Course at 140 KTS and Flaps 20 deg.
2.    Crossing Final Approach Fix, call " Gear Down Landing Check ".
3.    Descend to and maintain MDA until Field in Sight or MAP is initiated. ( As Appropriate ).
4.    If Landing is to be made, call " Full Flaps " when intercepting a glidepath appropriate for a
       normal landing.  For one engine INOP, Vref + 20 KTS until 100 feet AGL, then " Full
       Flaps" so as to descend thru 50 ft AGL at Vref as in a normal landing.

No Flap Approach

1.  Vref + 40 KTS until established on Final Approach.
2.  Vref + 30 KTS on final.
3.  Approach angle NORMAL.  A flat approach will usually result in a longer landing roll.

Go Around or Missed Approach

1.  "Max Power", Rotate to 10 deg, " Flaps 20 deg".
2.  Positive Rate of Climb, " Gear Up ", Vref + 30, " Flaps up, After Takeoff Checklist ".
3.  Climb at 200 KTS.
4.  Engine Failure or Fire Checklist if Appropriate.


1.  Set V2 on Capt. Airspeed & V1 on Co-Pilots Airspeed.
2.  At V 1, BOTH hands on Yoke.
3.  Vr, Rotate to 15 deg ( 2 eng ) 12 deg ( 1 eng ).
4.  Climb at 15 deg pitch, ( 2 eng ) or V 2 ( 1 eng ).
5.  At 400 ft & V2+30 KTS, "Flaps Up After T.O. Check ".
6.  Engine Failure or Fire Checklist if Appropriate.
7.  Climb  200 KTS to 3000 AGL then 250 Kts.

Rejected Takeoff

1.  Proceed as in normal takeoff until malfunction dictates that the takeoff be rejected.
2.  Capt. calls "Abort" (Co-Pilot may call Abort if Capt elects to delegate that authority).
3.  Thrust levers to idle
4.  Spoilers extend.
5.  Wheel brakes as necessary.
6.  Thrust Reverse OR Dragchute deploy.  (Never Both!)
7.  If another takeoff is contemplated consider brake energy & appropriate turnaround time.

Emergency Descent

 1.    Oxygen masks on within 5 sec of cabin pressure loss.
 2.    Check passenger oxygen masks deployed.
 3.     Select Oxygen mask microphone.
 4.    Ignition ON.
 5.    Thrust levers to idle.
 6.    Spoilers and Landing Gear, Extend.
 7.    Auto Pilot OFF.
 8.    Initiate 45 deg bank if desired.
 9.    Vmo/Mmo minus 10 kts to 14,000 or MEA as required.
10.  Clean up & proceed to nearest suitable airport if appropriate.  Condition of aircraft or
        reduced range due to low altitude may make flight to original destination unwise.

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